"The majority of Canadians support the conservation of nature", says Steve Woodley of Parks Canada.
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Nature and Forest Conservation in Canada
Correspondent: The irony is that this year the Salmon Fish Packing Factory ran by native peoples cannot process the Coho as Canada battles with gracious Alaskan Salmon Fishing fleets it is imposed a moratorium on catching Coho in B.C. waters but no one has told these other fisherman bald eagles, and the grizzly bear as the helicopter circled the bear seem not to notice. There’s a simple explanation all day the work horse helicopters fly over removing trees from steep slopes. When humans intervene with nature there are winners and losers and there are those in B.C. who believe the bears are coping well with life in the working landscape maybe too well.
Gary Shelton runs a consultancy on how to deal with bear attacks.
Gary Shelton: If you take a look right down here is what you’ll see is we have horsetail, we have slip joint grass. We have clover. This is vetch. These types of plants are what bears feed on in April, May and June before the berry crops come up.
Correspondent: Nowadays he won’t stray beyond the boundaries of his garden without his gun.
Gary: This little cabin built out of cedar poles here was built by my son when he was 12 year’s old. Now this is back in the 70’s and at that time we had a leveled mortality of bears and other predators of a such that we were too terribly concerned about danger to children like that. There’s not only a lower population but bears were afraid of people most days but what’s happened in the last15 years is that the population of both bears, cougars, and most that come up and as a result of that their behavior towards people has become less feared and that’s just simply because we have way lower level mortality on the – now so we would now think twice about letting 12-year-old kids come out in an area like this.
Correspondent: Benefiting from clear cutting, are the civil culturists, foresters who win contracts to tend every generating vegetation. Mark Moody, a new hawk native of the mid coast is one. Here under a business he set up he thinks that the new growth by girdling the bark.
Mark Moody: (Grizzly Holdings)-It has employed probably about 30 people all year round and sometimes we have 40 to 50 people that we have working and use the under working crews about 80 to 90% natives.
Correspondent: What Canadians have yet to resolve is what they want from their forests.
Steve Woodley: (Parks Canada)-The majority of Canadians if you look at the public opinion poll support the conservation of nature. They don’t want to see species lost. On the other hand they don’t want to see jobs lost out of the forests too so all these are balancing act.
Correspondent: Across the country there are modeled forest schemes whose aim is to strike that balance. The federal governments forest service is hopeful that these working laboratories will be where the loggers and – or forest farmers will be able to agree with practices that will result in a landscape acceptable to public opinion. In the lower St. Laurence model forest in Eastern Canada Robert Plourede is one of the 700 small scale loggers who believes that the – will always be a better steward than the logging company.
Robert Plourde: I don’t think that the companies won’t posses money in developing a forest. We know that there are controls in place lasting 20 to 30 years less interesting in the forest because the children and grandchildren will stay here.
Correspondent: The bottom line is that the Canadian Timber Industry brings in 50 billion U.S dollars a year and small scale harvesting can only contribute a fraction to that vast output. In striking the balance between the need for jobs and conservation the million are so native of first nation peoples are going to have an increasingly influential say in what happens.
Harry Bombay: (National Aboriginal Forestry Association)-Decree like the – people and the gas pay for – who are totally frustrated with what’s happening. They see tracks of wood going daily by their communities and they have little say about the harvesting of that wood and they have little opportunity to share in the economic benefits which is derived from the use of the wood fiber so yes there’s a bitter frustration a part of the aboriginal people.
Correspondent: It seems everyone is quoting the native bands. In B.C. treaties were never made with the native peoples and they have claims outstanding to 110% of the province. Now the first nations bands are gaining a large measure of sovereignty over their ancestral lands.
Frank Brown: (Sea Quest)-We have a long history here of 10,000 years of continuous habitation within our homeland in the mid coast and we want another 10,000 years and then some so it’s really important that we don’t liquidate our children’s inheritance but at the same time we have to have jobs to feed our children just like everybody else because we’re participants in the cash economy as well.
Tamara Stark: (Green Peace)-There are divisions there in the same way that there are divisions in any community that you find across this country. There are some people who are going to be pro-clear cutting, there are some people who are going to think that we can get at least get a few jobs out of it.
Correspondent: What is divided some native communities in B.C. is the agreement the municipal people have made with the province. They recently won their case to gain control over part of their traditional lands and to get 175 million dollar compensation payment.
Marvin Mack is a new – council member who has got a few months work on a clear cutting operation after standing 8 months on benefit.
Marvin Mack: Well the people they only got such a small portion of what they originally wanted so they just cut a small piece of the pine.
Correspondent: Meanwhile despite one company’s decision to end clear cutting the divisions between logging interests and environmental lobbyist will not be easily healed.
Tamara: The sad truth is, is that the Canadian logging industry is destroying our old growth forests and in some cases like Quebec where there’s fewer old growth forests and second growth forests were degrading our forest ecosystems in a hugely unsustainable rate.
Darrell McKay: (Interfor)-They want to tell us to stop the logging. We didn’t try to change to keep people happy. Every time we change th--
Keith Moore: (Chair Forest Practices Board)-I think you are right about the polarity and I think if you pull the 6 members of our board you find some fairly significant differences of opinion there as well.
Correspondent: So if only ½ of percent of Canada’s forest is felled each year can there be a crisis?
Yvan Hardy: (Canadian Forest Services)-It all depends where you stand. If you want to keep all the forest for the pleasure of your eyes and you see some trees being used for other uses then there’s a crisis in your mind I suppose.
Qwutsinas (Ed Moody): (Nuxalk Hereditary Chief)-The ancient rainforest you know they provide far more than the menial profits that the forest companies are making out of it now because if they logged out all the rainforest today it’s going to save the logging industry from the trouble it is in right now.
Tony Rotherham: (Canadian Pulp and Paper Association)-In sustainable forest management is a journey, not a destination and we’re definitely on that journey but we don’t think that we’ve quite achieved it yet.
Dan Welsh: (Canadian Forest Service)-I would say we manage our forests well from a scientific point of view. They’re going to continue to regenerate they’re always going to have wild life, but if you want that very special old tree then you’re going to have to keep it.
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